Polyethylene Terephthalate

What is PET?

Polyethylene terephthalate (PET or PETE) is a kind of plastic or polymer that is made by reacting two monomers (ethylene glycol and purified terephthalic acid, PTA) via a process called condensation polymerization, in the presence of a small amount of a catalyst. The resultant is a kind of polyester which is used for making fibers and other such applications. To make bottle grade PET resin, an additional step is required – solid state polymerization (SSP). PET was discovered and patented in England in 1941.

PET is one of the most widely used plastic for packaging applications. There are various reasons that contribute to PET’s popularity and to its choice as a packaging material. It is food safe. It is strong, lightweight, transparent, shatter-resistant, and provides additional properties like desired barrier properties (it is its effective barrier to carbon dioxide combined with transparency that makes it one of the most popular choices to package carbonated beverages in the world). From the consumer’s point of view, PET packaging offers convenience, light weight, and shatter-resistant (when compared to glass, ceramic and such options) thus making it a popular choice among consumers as well.

PET Production in India

The production of PET resin in India has risen steadily over the years. In 2015-16, ~1,450 KT of PET was produced in India (against a total capacity of 1,976 KT), as compared to ~980 KT in 2014-15 (against a capacity of 1326 KT). There are four major manufacturers of PET in India: Reliance Industries Limited, Dhunseri Petrochem and Tea Limited, JBF Industries Limited, Micro Poly Pet Private Limited (now Indorama). Production, capacity details are given in the table below. PET Production in India 2014-16 (all numbers in KT, total capacity in parenthesis)

RIL^374 (480)
Dhunseri*348 (410)
JBF**200 (220)
Micro pet**60 (216)
Total982 (1326)

^RIL annual report 2015-16; *http://dhunseritea.com/our-business/petrochem/; Dhunseri Annual Report 2015-16; **Data provided by GEM; # Indorama acquired Micro Pet in 2015; Indorama and Dhunseri have merged to form a single entity in India (effective from late 2016); Capacity data from news articles; Production data estimates based on industry inputs.

PET Consumption in India

Total domestic consumption = Total domestic production + Imports – Exports, In the year 2015-16, the total domestic consumption of PET was ~900 KT (as compared to 774 KT in 2014-15). These numbers need to be corrected for the fact that other grades of PET (used in textile and other applications) get imported and PET bottles and performs get exported (which is not captured in the import/export data) and other such factors. Assuming a downward correction of 5-8% to accommodate for these factors, the domestic consumption of PET in India can be pegged at 830-860 KT for the year 2015-16 (and 710-730 KT for 2014-15). Figure 1 gives the total production, export and import and consumption figures for India.

Why PET?

1. PET protects beverages and prevents wastage

As indicated by the English Establishment of Mechanical Specialists, starting at 2013 portion of all nourishment is wasted around the world. This wastage happens at all phases of creation, preparing, retailing and utilization.

With regards to drinks, one of the greatest variables that can battle waste is the way that PET containers can be resealed. For the advanced purchaser this is a major lift to accommodation: They can take a PET jug with them and appreciate it for the duration of the day as opposed to consuming it in one go or toss it out, as is frequently the case with glass and can bundling for instance.

PET likewise has awesome obstruction properties that secure and safeguard the substance of the item. PET keeps the bubble in carbonated soda pops, the vitamins in juices, and the shading in ketchup. As such, it secures items and keeps them on the racks and out of the garbage canister.

2. PET saves resources

Since the introduction of PET more than 40 years prior, the heaviness of standard PET bottles has diminished significantly because of improvements in PET sap innovation and change hardware. For makers hoping to enhance their ecological profile, using PET enables them to eliminate both the vitality used underway, and also the assets required.

Furthermore, notwithstanding their light weight, current PET bottles are intended to face the rigors of transport by being robust and shatterproof. Sidel has focused on keeping up the ideal inventory network strength and purchaser involvement with its new Rightweight™ idea. This idea bottle for still water weighs just 7.95 grams and has in the meantime the expected steadiness to stay away from the issue of 'over squeeze' once in a while experienced with lightweighting.

Notwithstanding using fewer assets underway, PET additionally cuts costs and ecological effect amid transportation. Contrasted and glass bottles, a truckload can contain up to 33% more PET bottles because they are lighter and can use the full space of the truck without over-burdening.

Furthermore, they are likewise more averse to break, which decreases optional bundling. These variables practically split the aggregate transportation vitality required and diminish greenhouse gas discharges. For instance, the aggregate transportation vitality for a normal kg of PET for drink bundling is 13.7 MJ contrasted with 25.4 MJ per kg for glass2.

3. PET reduces carbon footprint

Lifecycle studies of PET's energy use and greenhouse emissions have consistently shown that PET offers an outstanding ecoprofile compared to other packaging materials. For example, two different lifecycle studies conducted in 2009 of glass, can and PET single-serving soft drink containers looked at all the energy consumed and waste produced at each stage of the material's life cycle. The report found that carbonated soft drinks bottled in PET used less energy, created fewer greenhouse gas emissions and generated less solid waste than drinks in glass bottles or aluminium cans

This lifecycle analysis looked at all stages in the production process and covered extraction of raw materials, processing, manufacturing and filling of primary containers to secondary packaging and distribution.

Sidel is also supporting beverage producers to reduce the energy usage of equipment for PET production. The Sidel Matrix™ blower, for example, reduces electricity consumption in its Ecoven by up to 45% compared with previous models, by using new technologies and fewer heating modules and lamps. The blower requires approximately 15% less heating time and reduces air consumption by as much as 30%. The Sidel Matrix fillers and labellers have also reduced energy usage, both by up to 30% compared with previous models. Such technology can also be retrofitted to equipment installed in existing production lines. Sidel'sEcovens and Eco-lamps, for example, can be fitted to previous blower models.

Sidel was also the first company to introduce dry decontamination systems: Predis™, for bottle preforms, and Capdis™, for caps. While a traditional aseptic bottling line uses 250 cubic metres of water and 200 litres of chemicals daily to decontaminate bottles, Predis and Capdis dry decontaminate preforms using hydrogen peroxide mist that requires no water, uses very few chemicals and creates no effluent.


PET is endorsed for nourishment use by both the US Sustenance and Medication Organization and its European partner, the European Sustenance Security Specialist. Since the landing of blow forming strategies in the 1970s, PET has been used to make billions of bottles that have been used by shoppers around the globe. Numerous tests have made an expansive consensus that PET is non-poisonous and alright for the bundling and capacity of nourishment and refreshment items.

It's phenomenal hindrance properties mean it shields nourishment and drink items from sullying, water and soil without siphoning any harmful material. Furthermore, it is organically idle if ingested, safe amid dealing with and not a peril if breathed in.

Worldwide trust in the sterile and synthetic security of PET stems from the way that the PET polymer is extremely steady and idle. Like glass, it is solid, impervious to assault by miniaturized scale living beings, does not respond with sustenances, and won't organically debase. Be that as it may, dissimilar to glass, PET is to a great degree lightweight, easy to transport and won't break. That is the reason it's favored for bundling numerous nourishments and refreshments, particularly water and carbonated soda pops.

Makers of more delicate items are likewise getting to be mindful of the advantages of PET and it is turning into a prominent bundling decision for drinks, for example, fluid dairy items, juices, nectars, isotonics and teas. It is additionally influencing advances into the brew to showcase, which has customarily supported glass bottles.

Disregarding the way that PET has been liable to false panic crusades, the actualities remain that it is one of the most secure bundling materials accessible. It doesn't use Bisphenolan in its fabricate nor contain endocrine disruptors, orthos phthalates (plasticizers), dioxins, nor any overwhelming metals (Mercury, Lead, Cadmium or Hexavalent Chromium). This implies it secures fluids while ensuring shoppers as well.